As I understand it: The Present Perfect

Form: Subject + has/have + Form 3 (past participle) of the verb


I have spoken to my friend.

I have not spoken to my friend.

Have you spoken to your friend?

I can use it to talk about something that happened at an * indefinite time in the past, and has a significance in the present.  I can also use it along with expressions like ‘already’ and ‘yet’, as well as in conjunction with ‘for’ and ‘since’.  My focus is more on the experience rather than the event itself.


Suma has come to Dubai. She came in 2009. (*When there is a mention of a definite time, I use the Past Simple, rather than the Present Perfect.)

I have not visited Thailand yet.

Preetha has already made plans for her summer vacation.

I have worked in a language institute for a year.

Sally has been a teacher since 2001.



As I understand it: The Present Progressive (Continuous)

Form: Subject + am/are/is + present participle of the verb


I am (I'm) writing.
I am not writing.
Are you writing?

I can use it to express something that's happening now, at the time of speaking.  I can also use it to talk about an action that has started, but not finished yet, as well as to talk about temporary or developing situations, or personal plans.

Nishi is chatting with her friends.

I am going for piano lessons.

The rents in Dubai are falling.

I am leaving for the airport at nine tonight.

As I understand it: Present Simple

This is how I understand the present simple:

Form – Subject + Form 1 of the verb 


I write.

I do not (don’t) write.

Do you write?

I can use it to express habits and routines, likes and dislikes, universal truths and generalizations (facts), timetables and schedules.


Maxine gets up at 4 every morning.

I prefer tea over coffee.

The earth goes round the sun.

Exams start at eight.